Michael Raphael

Picture of Michael Raphael

Adjunct Lecturer
Social Sciences, Human Services and Criminal Justice

EMAIL: mraphael@bmcc.cuny.edu


Office Hours:


Michael W. Raphael, MPhil, MSCJ is a sociologist, professor, and author. His research and teaching interests are concerned with fundamental questions about intelligibility in politics, identity, and society.


Law & Society; Deviance & Social Control; Medical Sociology; Cultural Criminology; Cognitive Sociology; Social, Political & Legal Theory; Sociology of Artificial Intelligence


  • M.Phil., The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, Sociology
  • M.S., Northeastern University, Criminal Justice
  • B.S., Northeastern University, Sociology


Courses Taught

Research and Projects

Raphael examines the institutional aspects of cognition that factor into the development of standards for decision-making and their impact on intelligibility. By examining intelligibility and its connection to alienation, Raphael explores two related forms of inequality: stigma, a measure of social exclusion, and status, the extent to which one is perceived as respected and competent. This permits Raphael to target a number of substantive areas in which stigma and status processes are present (e.g., law, medicine, crime, and education). In doing so, this approach permits him to increase the generalizability of these sociological phenomena so we may understand what is different regarding the content, consequences, management, and foundations of alienation in everyday life.

More information is available at https://michaelwraphael.ws.gc.cuny.edu.


  • “The Politics of Twilights: Notes on the Semiotics of Horizon Photography.” Visual Studies. 33(4):295-312. doi: 10.1080/1472586X.2019.1590157. (Lead Article)(pdf)
  • “Cognitive Sociology.” Oxford Bibliographies Online in Sociology. doi: 10.1093/obo/9780199756384-0187. (pdf)

Honors, Awards and Affiliations

Additional Information